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2 edition of Density and moisture content measurements by nuclear methods found in the catalog.

Density and moisture content measurements by nuclear methods

Robin P. Gardner

Density and moisture content measurements by nuclear methods

by Robin P. Gardner

  • 77 Want to read
  • 7 Currently reading

Published by Highway Research Board, National Research Council in [Washington] .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Soils -- Density,
  • Soil moisture -- Measurement,
  • Radioactive gages

  • Edition Notes

    Statement[by] R.P. Gardner and K.F. Roberts.
    SeriesNational Cooperative Highway Research Program., Report 43, NAS-NRC publication ;, 1547., Report (National Cooperative Highway Research Program) ;, 43., Publication (National Research Council (U.S.)) ;, no. 1547.
    ContributionsRoberts, K. F., joint author., American Association of State Highway Officials., United States. Federal Highway Administration.
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsTE7 .N25 no. 43
    The Physical Object
    Pagination38 p.
    Number of Pages38
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL5562169M
    LC Control Number67062276

    This paper deals with the application of methods involving the scattering of neutrons and gamma rays to the measurement of moisture content and density of granular materials. The measurement of moisture content is based on the principle that when fast neutrons emitted from a radioactive source collide with hydrogen atoms they are slowed down to.   The method requires a nuclear density gauge consisting of a radiation source that emits particles and a sensor that records the particles obtained which either pass through the test material or reflected by it. The gauge can be calibrated to measure density by measuring the percentage of particles returning to the sensor.

    determines the moisture content of soils and soil-like materials. Hydrogen (water) in the material slows neutrons emitted from an americiumberyllium source (or californium in the Model M). Helium-3 detectors located in the gauge base detect the slowed neutrons. The nuclear method of testing density and moisture has been. OIML G Density measurement according OIML; ASTM-D Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity Standard; ISO specifies the use of a 4-decimal place analytical balance. The Confusion with Bulk Density. Bulk density is a measure of how many particles, parts or pieces are contained within a measured volume.

    Nuclear gauges are one of the most accurate methods used to measure the moisture content and density of soils, aggregates, and other materials. These measurements are used for building roads and dams, and for collecting scientific data on soil water content in agricultural and forestry settings. The Electrical Density Gauge (EDG) is a nuclear-free alternative for determining the moisture and density of compacted soils used in road beds and foundations. The EDG is a portable, battery-powered instrument capable of being used anywhere without the concerns and regulations associated with nuclear .


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Density and moisture content measurements by nuclear methods by Robin P. Gardner Download PDF EPUB FB2

Get this from a library. Density and moisture content measurements by nuclear methods. [L F Ballard; Robin P Gardner; National Research Council (U.S.). Highway Research Board.] -- Data is provided from an evaluation of the accuracy of the nuclear gages in comparison with the currently used non- nuclear methods of determining soil density and moisture content.

Get this from a library. Density and moisture content measurements by nuclear methods. [Robin P Gardner; K F Roberts; American Association of State Highway. density and moisture content measurements by nuclear methods SOURCES OF ERROR THAT HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED ON THE GAMMA- RAY SOIL DENSITY GAUGE ARE: (1) SENSITIVITY TO LOCAL DENSITY VARIATIONS, ESPECIALLY AT THE SOIL SURFACE, (2) SENSITIVITY TO SOIL COMPOSITION, AND (3) INACCURATE CALIBRATION by: optimization of density and moisture content measurements by nuclear methods r.

gardner, w. dunn, f. mcdougall, and w. lippold north carolina state university raleigh, north carolina research sponsored by the american association of state highway officials in cooperation with the federal highway administration areas of interest.

This test method describes the procedures for measuring in-place density and moisture of soil and soil-aggregate by use of nuclear equipment (hereafter referred to as “gauge”). The density of the material may be measured by direct transmission, backscatter, or backscatter/air-gap ratio methods.

Measurements for water (moisture) content are taken at the surface in backscatter mode. Nuclear Density Test. Nuclear density gauges measure density by measuring transmission through the soil of gamma radiation between a radioactive Cesium (or other) source and Geiger-Mueller detection circuitry.

Soil moisture is measured at the same. The Nuclear Gauge is specifically designed to measure the moisture content and density of soils, aggregates, cement and lime treated materials, and to measure the density of Bituminous Concrete. It offers the inspector a method of obtaining fast, accurate, in‐place measurement of density and moisture.

Determination of Plus ¾ in. (19 mm) Material and Moisture Content To evaluate the field density, it is must be compared to a control density. The control density is expressed in terms of the dry density of the minus ¾ in. (19 mm) portion of the material.

The method of determining the control density is described in Section Figure Variation of nuclear gauge and EDG density 42 Figure Variation of nuclear gauge and EDG moisture content (%) 43 Figure Nuclear gauge and EDG vs.

standard density for site 1 44 Figure STVD density errors for site 1 45 Figure Nuclear gauge and EDG vs. standard moisture contents for site 1 45 Figure Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the core, clod, and excavation methods for measuring soil bulk density. TABLE II Calculation sheet for determining bulk density (ρ b) for soil using the core method.

This method covers the procedure to be used in determining the percent of moisture and density of soil embankments, base, sub-base, and select materials, and the percent density for asphalt concrete.

Apparatus. The apparatus required shall consist of the following: A. Portable Nuclear Moisture-Density Gauge B. Transport case (Type “A” Package). Nuclear density gauges (NDG) are used to determine compaction acceptance of earthworks, The average density and moisture content of the lift of material are determined.

Direct transmission mode is used for testing compacted pavement construction materials. Dry density • field density measurements by NDG. Nuclear density gauge testing is the most versatile testing method to measure the wet density and moisture content of soil and granular construction materials (IOWADOT ).

It is widely being used for civil construction, petroleum industry, mining and archeology purposes (Goldberg et al. ; Rose et al. the purpose is to ominimize the errors identified with measurement of density and moisture content of soils using nuclear gages.

four methods are outlined: optimization of the dual-gage principle and energy discrimination method to compensate for soil composition effects of gamma-ray density gage measurements; study of techniques for minimizing.

The nuclear density gauge consistently underestimated moisture content and consequently overestimated dry unit weight values relative to the drive cylinder measurements.

Overall, the EGauge measurements were in better agreement with measurements made by the drive cylinder than they were with the nuclear density gauge test results.

density and moisture content measurements by nuclear methods r. gardner and k. roberts research triangle institute durham, north carolina research sponsored by the american association of state highway officials in cooperation with the bureau of public roads subject classification: construction ''^ general materials foundations (soils).

Electrical Methods 11 b. Microwave 13 c. Nuclear 15 d. Near-Infrared 17 5. Conclusion 19 6. About the Author 20 7. About Kett 20 • Can measure moisture content to a very high degree of accuracy. The original primary moisture measurement method was Loss On Drying (LOD). In an LOD test, the sample is weighed, dried.

The obtained measurements show that large variations for permittivity values can be found with moisture content and density changes for both cypress and rockrose biomass. Temperature also has effects in a lesser degree, although it has an important influence on the cypress biomass loss factor.

ATT/95, CORRECTION FACTORS, Nuclear Moisture-Density Measurements SCOPE This method describes the procedures for determining correction factors for moisture content and density, applicable to measurements made with a nuclear moisture-density gauge.

EQUIPMENT Refer to Section Equipment of ATT, DENSITY, In Place, Nuclear Method. The method described determines wet density and gravimetric water content by correlating complex impedance measurement data to an empirically developed model.

The empirical model is generated by comparing the electrical properties of typical soils encountered in civil construction projects to their wet densities and gravimetric water contents determined by other accepted methods.

count ratio vs. density table and curves, and count ratio vs. moisture table and curve is available with California Test at: 3. Affidavit of Nuclear Gauge Calibration (Form TL ()) (Figures 2 & 3) 4.

NIST traceability document E. PRECAUTIONS Nuclear gauge density and/or moisture calibration must be performed at least once every Moisture-Density Relations of Soils* ATM Standard Density of Coarse Granular Materials using the Vibratory Compactor WAQTC FOP for AASHTO T In-Place Density and Moisture Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods* WAQTC FOP for AASHTO T Correction for Coarse Particles in the Soil Compaction Test* FIELD METHOD FOR DETERMINING IN-PLACE DENSITY OF SOILS AND BASE MATERIALS TXDOT DESIGNATION: TEXE CONSTRUCTION DIVISION 4 – 15 LAST REVIEWED: SEPTEMBER Note 9—Where the material contains chemically bound water (i.e., gypsum) and other hydrogen atoms, such as in asphalt, iron ore, coal, mica and vegetation, use of nuclear gauges may not provide .